Fuck Yeah Fluid Dynamics

Celebrating the physics of all that flows. Ask a question, submit a post idea or send an email. You can also follow FYFD on Twitter and Google+. FYFD is written by Nicole Sharp, PhD.

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Posts tagged "turbulence"
Type 1a supernovae occur in binary star systems where a dense white dwarf star accretes matter from its companion star. As the dwarf star gains mass, it approaches the limit where electron degeneracy pressure can no longer oppose the gravitational force of its mass. Carbon fusion in the white dwarf ignites a flame front, creating isolated bubbles of burning fluid inside the star. As these bubbles burn, they rise due to buoyancy and are sheared and deformed by the neighboring matter. The animation above is a visualization of temperature from a simulation of one of these burning buoyant bubbles. After the initial ignition, instabilities form rapidly on the expanding flame front and it quickly becomes turbulent. (Image credit: A. Aspden and J. Bell; GIF credit: fruitsoftheweb, source video; via freshphotons)

Type 1a supernovae occur in binary star systems where a dense white dwarf star accretes matter from its companion star. As the dwarf star gains mass, it approaches the limit where electron degeneracy pressure can no longer oppose the gravitational force of its mass. Carbon fusion in the white dwarf ignites a flame front, creating isolated bubbles of burning fluid inside the star. As these bubbles burn, they rise due to buoyancy and are sheared and deformed by the neighboring matter. The animation above is a visualization of temperature from a simulation of one of these burning buoyant bubbles. After the initial ignition, instabilities form rapidly on the expanding flame front and it quickly becomes turbulent. (Image credit: A. Aspden and J. Bell; GIF credit: fruitsoftheweb, source video; via freshphotons)

Pyrocumulus clouds tower tall above a wildfire in these photos taken last week from an Oregon National Guard F-15C. Most cumulus clouds form when the sun-warmed surface heats air, causing it to rise and carry moisture upward where it condenses to form clouds. In pyrocumulus clouds, the driving heat is supplied by a forest fire or volcanic eruption. The hot, rising air carries smoke and soot particles upward, where they become nucleation sites for condensation. Pyrocumulus clouds can be especially turbulent, and the gusting winds they produce can exacerbate wildfires. In some cases, the clouds can even develop into a pyrocumulonimbus thunderstorm with rain and lightning.  (Photo credit: J. Haseltine; via NASA Earth Observatory)

Spend an hour watching the clouds roll overhead and no two of them will be the same. The complexity and dynamic motion of turbulence make these flows fascinating, even mesmerizing, to watch. Humans are a pattern-seeking species. We like to seek order in apparent chaos, and this, perhaps, is what makes turbulence such a captivating subject for scientists and artists alike.

Nicole Sharp, “The Beautiful Unpredictability of Coffee, Clouds, and Fire”

Something a little different today. I have a guest post over at Nautilus about looking for patterns in turbulence. Go check it out!

Aerial fireworks are essentially semi-controlled exploding rockets. Here Discovery Channel shares high-speed video of fireworks taking off. The turbulent billowing exhaust on the ground is reminiscent of other rocket launches. The tube-launched firework clip is a great example of an underexpanded nozzle. The pressure of the gases in the tube is higher than the ambient air, so when the gases escape, the exhaust fans out to equalize the pressure. And, finally, the explosion that propels the colorful chemicals outward forms jets that can affect the final form of the display. To my American readers: Happy 4th of July! And be safe! (VIdeo credit: Discovery Slow-Down)

Reader 3d-time asks:

Hi, there is a guy, at my college, who is doing a master’s degree thesis in turbulence. He says he uses fractals and computational methods. Can you explain how fractals can be used in fluid dynamics?

That’s a good question! Fractals are a relatively recent mathematical development, and they have several features that make them an attractive tool, especially in the field of turbulence. Firstly, fractals, especially the Mandelbrot set shown above, demonstrate that great complexity can be generated out of simple rules or equations. Secondly, fractals have a feature known as self-similarity, meaning that they appear essentially the same regardless of scale. If you zoom in on the Mandelbrot set, you keep finding copy after copy of the same pattern. Nature, of course, doesn’t have this perfect infinite self-similarity; at some point things break down into atoms if you keep zooming in. But it is possible to have self-similarity across a large range of scales. This is where turbulence comes in. Take a look at the turbulent plume of the volcanic eruption in the photo above. Physically, it contains scales ranging from hundreds of meters to millimeters, and these scales are connected to one another by their motion and the energy being passed from one scale to another. There have been theories suggested to describe the relationship between these scales, but no one has yet found a theory truly capable of explaining turbulence as we observe it. Both the self-similarity and the complex nature of fractals suggest they could be useful tools in finally unraveling turbulence. In fact, Mandelbrot himself wrote several papers connecting the two concepts. Perhaps your friend will help find the next hints!  (Image credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Wikimedia)

Observations show Jupiter’s iconic Great Red Spot is shrinking, most recently at a rate of more than 900 km a year. As it gets smaller, the storm is also changing shape and becoming more circular. Scientists don’t yet have an explanation for the shrinkage or its recent acceleration, but this is unsurprising given the rich complexity of the storm. For example, the source of the Red Spot’s longevity—it may be more than 300 years old—is still an open topic of research. Some of the most recent observations show smaller eddies feeding into the storm; the current hypothesis is that these eddies may be increasing the Red Spot’s dissipation and accelerating its breakup. (Photo credit: NASA/ESA; h/t to io9)

Flow patterns can change dramatically as fluid speed and Reynolds number increase. These visualizations show flow moving from left to right around a circular plunger. The lower Reynolds number flow is on the left, with a large, well-formed, singular vortex spinning off the plunger’s shoulder. The image on the right is from a higher Reynolds number and higher freestream speed. Now the instantaneous flow field is more complicated, with a string of small vortices extending from the plunger and a larger and messier area of recirculation behind the plunger. In general, increasing the Reynolds number of a flow makes it more turbulent, generating a larger range of length scales in the flow and increasing its complexity. (Image credit: S. O’Halloran)

Sneezing and coughing are major contributors to the spread of many pathogens. Both are multiphase flows, consisting of both liquid droplets and gaseous vapors that interact. The image on the left shows a sneeze cloud as a turbulent plume. The kink in the cloud shows that plume is buoyant, which helps it remain aloft. The right image shows trajectories for some of the larger droplets ejected in a sneeze. Like the sneeze cloud, these droplets persist for significant distances. The buoyancy of the cloud also helps keep aloft some of the smaller pathogen-bearing droplets. Researchers are building models for these multiphase flows and their interactions to better predict and counter the spread of such airborne pathogens. For similar examples of fluid dynamics in public health, see what coughing looks like, how hospital toilets may spread pathogens, and how adjusting viscoelastic properties may counter these effects. (Image credit: L. Bourouiba et al.)

Every year Chicago dyes its river green in honor of St. Patrick’s Day. This timelapse video shows this year’s dyeing, including several passes from a boat distributing the green dye. The color is remarkably slow to diffuse. The boat’s passage does little to affect the motion of the dye already in the river. This is because the boat mainly disturbs the surface and most of the color comes from dye spread throughout the water. It’s like if you tried to stir milk into your coffee just by tapping the surface with your spoon. Instead, the slower, large-scale turbulent motion of the river distributes the dye. For more St. Patrick’s Day physics, be sure to check out Guinness physics and why tapping a beer makes it foam. (Video credit: P. Tsai; submitted by Bobby E.)

Though they may appear random at first glance, turbulent flows do possess structure. The video above shows a numerical simulation of a mixing layer, a flow in which two adjacent regions of fluid move with different velocities. The upper third of the frame shows a top view, and the bottom frame shows a side view, in which the upper fluid layer moves faster than the lower one. The difference in velocities creates shear which quickly drives the mixing layer into turbulence. But watch the chaos carefully, and your eye will pick out vortices rolling clockwise in the largest scales of the mixing layer. These features are known as coherent structures, and they are key to current efforts to understand and model turbulent flows. (Video credit: A. McMullan)