Fuck Yeah Fluid Dynamics

Celebrating the physics of all that flows. Ask a question, submit a post idea or send an email. You can also follow FYFD on Twitter and Google+. FYFD is written by Nicole Sharp, PhD.

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Posts tagged "magnetic field"

Earth is not the only planet in our solar system with auroras. As the solar wind—a stream of rarefied plasma from our sun—blows through the solar system, it interacts with the magnetic fields of other planets as well as our own. Saturn’s magnetic field second only to Jupiter’s in strength. This strong magnetosphere deflects many of the solar wind’s energetic particles, but, as on Earth, some of the particles get drawn in along Saturn’s magnetic field lines. These lines converge at the poles, where the high-energy particles interact with the gases in the upper reaches of Saturn’s atmosphere. As a result, Saturn, like Earth, has impressive and colorful light displays around its poles. (Image credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Kornmesser & L. Calçada, source video; via spaceplasma)

The Flow II" film by Bose Collins and colleagues features a ferrofluid, a magnetically-sensitive liquid made up of a carrier fluid like oil and many tiny, ferrous nanoparticles. Although ferrofluids are known for many strange behaviors, their most distinctive one is the spiky appearance they take on when exposed to a constant magnetic field. This peak-and-valley structure is known as the normal-field instability. It’s the result of the fluid attempting to follow the magnetic field lines upward. Gravity and surface tension oppose this magnetic force, allowing the fluid to be drawn upward only so far until all three forces balance.  (Video credit: B. Collins et al.)

An aurora, as seen from the International Space Station, glows in green and red waves over the polar regions of Earth. These lights are the result of interactions between the solar wind—a stream of hot, rarefied plasma from the sun—and our planet’s magnetic field. A bow shock forms where they meet, about 12,000-15,000 km from Earth. The planet’s magnetic field deflects much of the solar wind, but some plasma gets drawn in along field lines near the poles. When these energetic particles interact with nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere, it can excite the atoms and generate photon emissions, creating the distinctive glow. Similar auroras have been observed on several other planets and moons in our solar system. (Photo credit: NASA)

Ferrofluids—liquids seeded with magnetically sensitive ferrous nanoparticles—demonstrate some beautiful and bizarre behaviors when exposed to magnetic fields. This video shows the reaction of a pool of ferrofluid to the magnetic field generated by an alternating current through a simple wire coil. At 1 Hz, the fluid response is not unlike the normal-field instability—the characteristic spikes—the fluid develops when exposed to a permanent magnet. But because field is fluctuating, the spikes pop out and fade again. At 10 Hz, the behavior gets even more interesting. As the frequency of the magnetic field’s oscillation increases, the time the fluid has to respond to changes in the magnetic field decreases. Eventually, one can imagine a point where the magnetic field oscillates faster than the molecules in the fluid can rearrange themselves to respond. It’s unclear if such a mismatch in timescales is the cause of the increasing violence of the ferrofluid’s response in the later clips or whether this results from an unmentioned change to the current through the coil. For something even wilder, check out Nick’s video of the ferrofluid’s response to music. (Video credit: N. Moore)

Anyone who has eaten a bowl of Cheerios is familiar with the way solid objects floating on a liquid surface will congregate. This is a form of capillary force driven by the wetting of the particles, surface tension, and buoyancy. Using ferromagnetic particles and a vertical magnetic field, one can balance capillary action and lock the particles into a fixed configuration relative to one another. By adding a second, oscillating magnetic field, it’s possible to make the beads dance and swim together. Like all of this week’s videos, this video is an entry in the 2013 Gallery of Fluid Motion. (Video credit: M. Hubert et al.)

Ferrofluids—magnetically-sensitive fluids made up of a carrier liquid and ferrous nanoparticles—may soon have a new application as a miniature thruster on nanosatellites. Microspray thrusters use tiny hollow needles to electrically spray jets of liquid that propel a satellite. But manufacturing the fragile microscopic needles used to disperse the propellant is expensive. Instead researchers are now using ferrofluids to create both the needle-like structures and to serve as the propellant. A ring of ferrofluid is placed on the thruster surface and a magnetic field applied to create the ferrofluid’s distinctive spikes. Then, when an electric force is applied, tiny jets of ferrofluid spray out from each tip, creating thrust. Unlike the conventional needles, the ferrofluid spikes are robust and can reform after being disturbed. (Photo credit: L. B. King et al.; submitted by jshoer)

New photographs showing ultra-fine structure in the sun's chromosphere and photosphere have been released. They offer a fascinating view into the magnetohydrodynamics of the sun, where the fluid behaviors of plasma are constantly modified by the sun’s magnetic field. The left image shows fine-scale magnetic loops rooted in the photosphere, while the right image shows our clearest photo yet of a sunspot. The dark central portion is the umbra, where magnetic field lines are almost vertical; it’s surrounded by the penumbra, where field lines are more inclined. Further out, we see the regular convective cell structure of the sun. (Photo credit: Big Bear Solar Observatory/NJIT; via io9 and cnet)

Ferrofluidscolloidal suspensions made up of ferromagnetic nanoparticles and a carrier liquid—are known for their interesting and sometimes bizarre behaviors due to magnetic fields. The video above shows how, when subjected to an increasing magnetic field, a single droplet of a ferrofluid on a superhydrophobic surface will split into several droplets. The process is called static self-assembly, and it results from the ferrofluid seeking a minimum energy state relative to the force supplied by the magnetic field. Change the magnetic field and the droplets shift to the next energy minimum. But what happens when you change the magnetic field continuously and too quickly for the droplets to respond? A whole different set of structures and behaviors are observed (video link). This is dynamic self-assembly, a different ordered state only achieved when the ferrofluid is forceably kept away from the energy minima seen in the first video. For more, see the additional videos and the original paper. (Video credit: J. Timonen et al.; via io9)

During a solar flare, magnetic field lines on the sun are often visible due to the flow of plasma—charged particles—along the lines. According to theory, these magnetic lines should remain intact, but they are sometimes observed breaking and reconnecting with other lines. An interdisciplinary team of researchers suggests that turbulence may be the missing link. In their magnetohydrodynamic simulation, they found that the presence of chaotic turbulent motions made the magnetic line motion entirely unpredictable, whereas laminar flows behaved according to conventional flux-freezing theory. (Photo credit: NASA SDO; Research credit: G. Eyink et al.; via SpaceRef; submitted by jshoer)

Ferrofluids are known for their fascinating behaviors when subjected to magnetic fields, especially for the distinctive peaks they can form. In this video, we see a very thin ferrofluid drop on a pre-wetted surface just as a uniform perpendicular magnetic field is applied. Immediately the droplet breaks up into tiny isolated peaks that migrate out to the circumference. The interface breaks down from center, where the drop height is largest, and moves outward. Simultaneously, the diffusion of ferrofluid from the circumferential droplets into the surrounding fluid lowers the magnetization of those droplets, making it more difficult for them to repel their neighbors. As a result, they drift outward more slowly and get caught by the faster-moving droplets from within. (Video credit: C. Chen)