Fuck Yeah Fluid Dynamics

Celebrating the physics of all that flows. Ask a question, submit a post idea or send an email. You can also follow FYFD on Twitter and Google+. FYFD is written by Nicole Sharp, PhD.

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Posts tagged "jets"
Rockets often utilize liquid propellants for their combustion. To maximize the efficiency during burning, the liquid fuel and oxidizer must mix quickly and break up into an easily vaporized spray. One method to achieve this is to inject the fuel and oxidizer as liquid jets that collide with one another. For high enough flow rates, this creates a highly unstable liquid sheet that quickly atomizes into a spray of droplets. The animation above shows an example of two impinging jets, but rockets using this method would typically have more than just two injection points. Other rockets use co-axial or centrifugal injectors to mix and atomize the fuel and oxidizer prior to combustion.  (Image credit: C. Inoue; full-scale GIF)

Rockets often utilize liquid propellants for their combustion. To maximize the efficiency during burning, the liquid fuel and oxidizer must mix quickly and break up into an easily vaporized spray. One method to achieve this is to inject the fuel and oxidizer as liquid jets that collide with one another. For high enough flow rates, this creates a highly unstable liquid sheet that quickly atomizes into a spray of droplets. The animation above shows an example of two impinging jets, but rockets using this method would typically have more than just two injection points. Other rockets use co-axial or centrifugal injectors to mix and atomize the fuel and oxidizer prior to combustion.  (Image credit: C. Inoue; full-scale GIF)

Object impacts in water and other fluids often create cavities that generate jets when they collapse. But impacts on granular materials can produce similar results, forming a cavity, a splash corona, and, under the right circumstances, a jet. This Sixty Symbols video explores the effect of grain size (and thus weight) on the formation of such a rebound jet. Ultimately, the jet behavior is driven by air. When the granular material is poured, air gets trapped between the grains. The impact compresses the grains, forcing the previously trapped air up and out through the cavity created by the impact. Interestingly, once the air pressure is low enough, jet creation is suppressed, not unlike splash suppression in liquids. (Video credit: Sixty Symbols/Univ. of Nottingham)

Many situations can generate high-speed liquid jets, including droplet impacts, vibrated fluids, and surface charges. In each of these cases, a concave liquid surface is impulsively accelerated, which causes the flow to focus into a jet. The image above shows snapshots of a microjet generated from a 50 micron capillary tube visible at the right. This jet formed when the meniscus inside the capillary tube was disturbed by a laser pulse that vaporized fluid behind the interface. Incredibly, the microjets generated with this method can reach speeds of 850 m/s, nearly 3 times the speed of sound in air. Researchers have found the method produces consistent results and suggest that it could one day form the basis for needle-free drug injection. You can read more in their freely available paper. (Photo credit: K. Tagawa et al.)

When two jets of a viscous liquid collide, they can form a chain-like stream or even a fishbone pattern, depending on the flow rate. This video demonstrates the menagerie of shapes that form not only with changing flow rates but by changing how the jets collide - from a glancing impingement to direct collision. When just touching, the viscous jets generate long threads of fluid that tear off and form tiny satellite droplets. At low flow rates, continuing to bring the jets closer causes them to twist around one another, releasing a series of pinched-off droplets. At higher flow rates, bringing the jets closer to each other creates a thin webbing of fluid between the jets that ultimately becomes a full fishbone pattern when the jets fully collide. The surface-tension-driven Plateau-Rayleigh instability helps drive the pinch-off and break-up into droplets. (Video credit: B. Keshavarz and G. McKinley)

As young stars form, they often produce narrow high-speed jets from their poles. By astronomical standards, these fountains are dense, narrowly collimated, and quickly changing. The jets have been measured at velocities greater than 200 km/s and Mach numbers as high as 20. The animation above (which you should watch in its full and glorious resolution here) is a numerical simulation of a protostellar jet. Every few decades the source star releases a new pulse, which expands, cools, and becomes unstable as it travels away from the star. Models like these, combined with observations from telescopes like Hubble, help astronomers unravel how and why these jets form. (Image credit: J. Stone and M. Norman)ETA: As it happens, the APOD today is also about protostellar jets, so check that out for an image of the real thing. Thanks, jshoer!

As young stars form, they often produce narrow high-speed jets from their poles. By astronomical standards, these fountains are dense, narrowly collimated, and quickly changing. The jets have been measured at velocities greater than 200 km/s and Mach numbers as high as 20. The animation above (which you should watch in its full and glorious resolution here) is a numerical simulation of a protostellar jet. Every few decades the source star releases a new pulse, which expands, cools, and becomes unstable as it travels away from the star. Models like these, combined with observations from telescopes like Hubble, help astronomers unravel how and why these jets form. (Image credit: J. Stone and M. Norman)

ETA: As it happens, the APOD today is also about protostellar jets, so check that out for an image of the real thing. Thanks, jshoer!

This high-speed video of a bullet fired into a water balloon shows how dramatically drag forces can affect an object. In general, drag is proportional to fluid density times an object’s velocity squared. This means that changes in velocity cause even larger changes in drag force. In this case, though, it’s not the bullet’s velocity that is its undoing. When the bullet penetrates the balloon, it transitions from moving through air to moving through water, which is 1000 times more dense. In an instant, the bullet’s drag increases by three orders of magnitude. The response is immediate: the bullet slows down so quickly that it lacks the energy to pierce the far side of the balloon. This is not the only neat fluid dynamics in the video, though. When the bullet enters the balloon, it drags air in its wake, creating an air-filled cavity in the balloon. The cavity seals near the entry point and quickly breaks up into smaller bubbles. Meanwhile, a unstable jet of water streams out of the balloon through the bullet hole, driven by hydrodynamic pressure and the constriction of the balloon. (Video credit: Keyence)

Whenever a hollow cavity forms at the surface of a liquid, the cavity’s collapse generates a jet—a rising, high-speed column of liquid. The composite images above show snapshots of the process, from the moment of the cavity’s greatest depth to the peak of the jet. The top row of images shows water, and the bottom row contains a fluid 800 times more viscous than water. The added viscosity both smooths the geometry of the process and slows the jet down, yet strong similarities clearly remain. Focusing on similarities in fluid flows across a range of variables, like viscosity, is key to building mathematical models of fluid behavior. Once developed, these models can help predict behaviors for a wide range of flows without requiring extensive calculation or experimentation. (Image credit: E. Ghabache et al.)

Paint is probably the Internet’s second favorite non-Newtonian fluid to vibrate on a speaker—after oobleck, of course. And the Slow Mo Guys' take on it does not disappoint: it's bursting (literally?) with great fluid dynamics. It all starts at 1:53 when the less dense green paint starts dimpling due to the Faraday instability. Notice how the dimples and jets of fluid are all roughly equally spaced. When the vibration surpasses the green paint’s critical amplitude, jets sprout all over, ejecting droplets as they bounce. At 3:15, watch as a tiny yellow jet collapses into a cavity before the cavity’s collapse and the vibration combine to propel a jet much further outward. The macro shots are brilliant as well; watch for ligaments of paint breaking into droplets due to the surface-tension-driven Plateau-Rayleigh instability. (Video credit: The Slow Mo Guys)

For the right angles and flow rates, it’s possible to bounce a fluid jet off a pool of the same fluid. As the jet flows, it pulls a thin layer of air with it, entraining the air. This air film is what keeps the jet separate from the pool when it initially hits. In the photo above, the jet is flowing right to left; notice how it maintains its integrity within the dimple during the bounce. The pool’s surface tension acts almost like a trampoline, redirecting the jet’s momentum into the bounce. It’s even possible to get a double bounce. In this video, the mechanism is the same, although the apparatus is different. In the photo above, the jet is introduced with a horizontal velocity to induce air entrainment and bouncing. In the video, the pool is spinning, which provides the necessary horizontal velocity between the jet and the liquid pool. (Photo credit: J. Bomber and T. Lockhart)

Here’s a likely Ig Nobel Prize candidate from the BYU SplashLab: a study of splashing caused by a stream of fluid entering a horizontal body of water or hitting a solid vertical surface. In other words, urinal dynamics. The researchers simulated this activity using a stream of water released from a given height and angle and observed the resulting splash with high-speed video. They found a stream falls only 15-20 centimeters before the Plateau-Rayleigh instability breaks it into a series of droplets, and that this is the worst-case scenario for splash-back. The video above shows how a stream of droplets hits the pool, creating a complex cavity driven deeper with each droplet impact. Not only does each impact create a splash, the cavity’s collapse does as well. Similarly, when it comes to solid surfaces, they found that a continuous stream splashes less. They’ve also put together a helpful primer on the best ways to avoid splash-back. (Video credit: R. Hurd and T. Truscott; submitted by Ian N., bewuethr, John C. and possibly others)

For readers attending the APS DFD meeting, you can catch their talk, "Urinal Dynamics," Sunday afternoon in Session E9 before you come to E18 for my FYFD talk.