Fuck Yeah Fluid Dynamics

Celebrating the physics of all that flows. Ask a question, submit a post idea or send an email. You can also follow FYFD on Twitter and Google+. FYFD is written by Nicole Sharp, PhD.

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Posts tagged "cavity"

Object impacts in water and other fluids often create cavities that generate jets when they collapse. But impacts on granular materials can produce similar results, forming a cavity, a splash corona, and, under the right circumstances, a jet. This Sixty Symbols video explores the effect of grain size (and thus weight) on the formation of such a rebound jet. Ultimately, the jet behavior is driven by air. When the granular material is poured, air gets trapped between the grains. The impact compresses the grains, forcing the previously trapped air up and out through the cavity created by the impact. Interestingly, once the air pressure is low enough, jet creation is suppressed, not unlike splash suppression in liquids. (Video credit: Sixty Symbols/Univ. of Nottingham)

This high-speed video of a bullet fired into a water balloon shows how dramatically drag forces can affect an object. In general, drag is proportional to fluid density times an object’s velocity squared. This means that changes in velocity cause even larger changes in drag force. In this case, though, it’s not the bullet’s velocity that is its undoing. When the bullet penetrates the balloon, it transitions from moving through air to moving through water, which is 1000 times more dense. In an instant, the bullet’s drag increases by three orders of magnitude. The response is immediate: the bullet slows down so quickly that it lacks the energy to pierce the far side of the balloon. This is not the only neat fluid dynamics in the video, though. When the bullet enters the balloon, it drags air in its wake, creating an air-filled cavity in the balloon. The cavity seals near the entry point and quickly breaks up into smaller bubbles. Meanwhile, a unstable jet of water streams out of the balloon through the bullet hole, driven by hydrodynamic pressure and the constriction of the balloon. (Video credit: Keyence)

Whenever a hollow cavity forms at the surface of a liquid, the cavity’s collapse generates a jet—a rising, high-speed column of liquid. The composite images above show snapshots of the process, from the moment of the cavity’s greatest depth to the peak of the jet. The top row of images shows water, and the bottom row contains a fluid 800 times more viscous than water. The added viscosity both smooths the geometry of the process and slows the jet down, yet strong similarities clearly remain. Focusing on similarities in fluid flows across a range of variables, like viscosity, is key to building mathematical models of fluid behavior. Once developed, these models can help predict behaviors for a wide range of flows without requiring extensive calculation or experimentation. (Image credit: E. Ghabache et al.)

Paint is probably the Internet’s second favorite non-Newtonian fluid to vibrate on a speaker—after oobleck, of course. And the Slow Mo Guys' take on it does not disappoint: it's bursting (literally?) with great fluid dynamics. It all starts at 1:53 when the less dense green paint starts dimpling due to the Faraday instability. Notice how the dimples and jets of fluid are all roughly equally spaced. When the vibration surpasses the green paint’s critical amplitude, jets sprout all over, ejecting droplets as they bounce. At 3:15, watch as a tiny yellow jet collapses into a cavity before the cavity’s collapse and the vibration combine to propel a jet much further outward. The macro shots are brilliant as well; watch for ligaments of paint breaking into droplets due to the surface-tension-driven Plateau-Rayleigh instability. (Video credit: The Slow Mo Guys)

When a solid object impacts on a liquid a cavity typically forms, entraining air into the pool. But this behavior varies widely according to the surface of the solid as well as the fluid’s properties. This video shows a sphere impacting a highly viscous liquid. The sphere stops shortly after impact while the cavity continues expanding in its wake. With a fluid like water, a long and thin cavity will typically pinch off before the object is decelerated, causing bubbles to form. No such behavior here. Instead the wide cavity pinches off at the surface of the motionless sphere and begins its rebound upwards. It even appears to pull the sphere partially back towards the surface! (Video credit: A. Le Goff et al.)

Almost everyone has tried skipping rocks across the surface of a pond or lake. Here Professor Tadd Truscott gives a primer on the physics of rock skipping, including some high-speed video of the impact and rebound. In a conventional side-arm-launched skip, the rock’s impact creates a cavity, whose edge the rock rides. This pitches the rock upward, creating a lifting force that launches the rock back up for another skip. Alternatively, you can launch a rock overhand with a strong backspin. The rock will go under the surface, but if there’s enough spin on it, there will be sufficient circulation to create lift that brings the rock back up. This is the same Magnus effect used in many sports to control the behavior of a ball—whether it’s a corner or free kick in soccer or a spike in volleyball or tennis. (Video credit: BYU Splash Lab/Brigham Young University)

Underwater explosions often behave non-intuitively. Here researchers explore the effects of surface explosions by setting off charges at the air/water interface. Initially, an unconfined explosion’s blast wave expands a cavity radially into the water. This cavity collapses back toward the surface from the bottom up, ultimately resulting in a free jet that rebounds above the water level. Confined explosions behave very differently, expanding down the glass tube containing them in a one-dimensional fashion. The cavity never extends beyond the end of the glass tube, likely due to hydrostatic pressure. (Video credit: Adrien Benusiglio, David Quéré, Christophe Clanet)

When a fluid is vibrated, instabilities can form along its surface. With a sufficient amplitude, voids form inside the fluid and their collapse leads to a jet that shoots out from the fluid. A very different process leads to air cavities forming in a vibrated granular medium, but the jets produced are remarkably similar, as seen in this video. (Video credit: M. Sandtke et al.)

Bubbles rising through a viscous fluid deform and interact.  As they collapse into one another, the lower bubble induces a gravity-driven jet that projects upward into the higher bubble. The more elongated the bubble, the faster the jet.  The same behavior is seen in the rebound of a cavity at the free surface of a liquid. The authors suggest a universal scaling law for this behavior. (Video credit: T. Seon et al.)